Terms of Reference (ToR)


Development of Management Model for Public Toilets

1.0 Introduction

SNV Netherlands Development Organisation is a not-for-profit development organisation working in the sectors of WASH, Agriculture and Energy through providing advisory services, facilitating knowledge development, networking, strengthening local capacity builders, and carrying out advocacy at national and international levels. Founded in 1965, SNV has built a long term local presence in countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. For more information, please refer to our website: www.snv.org

SNV is implementing a program City Wide Inclusive Sanitation Engagement (CWISE) in Southern Bangladesh under the leadership of Local Government Authorities (City Corporations and Municipalities). Over the past 5 years, the program has successfully developed a multi stakeholder coordination mechanism at the local level under the leadership of Local Government Institutions, bringing together local authorities, utility, national agencies, universities, private sector and civil society around urban sanitation. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate a city-wide, pro-poor, accountable, safe and sustainable faecal sludge management services for the urban context in Bangladesh, showing improvement in the living environment and contributing to the health and well-being of the urban population.

The CWISE program is being implemented in 5 Southern cities (Khulna, Jhenaidah, Kushtia, Jashore and Benapole) and Gazipur in Bangladesh. SNV aims to support Local Authorities in Khulna (Khulna City Corporation and Khulna Water Supply and Sewerage Authority) along with Gazipur City Corporation, Jhenaidah, Kushtia, Jashore and Benapole Paurashavas to address service delivery challenges in Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) and advance the development of the sector as a whole, through strategic engagement with Government Agencies (sector Ministry, relevant Departments and their service delivery channels at sub-national level) and partnering with other experienced civil society and private sector organisations working in the sector. The project partners aim to facilitate a decisive shift in sector thinking, culture and practice through close alignment with respected sector agencies and working collectively with government and local partners to address underlying systemic sector issues that limit sector development. The project consists of 6 major components: 1) Sanitation demand creation and behavioural change communication; 2) Strengthening sanitation supply chain development; 3) Improving WASH Governance and multi-stakeholder sector development; 4) Sustainable Finance and Investment; 5) Introducing environmentally safe treatment and re-use technologies; and 6)  Processing documentation for future learning and replication of the interventions in other areas in need.

2.0 Background and Rationale

Public toilets (PT), which can be better referred as ‘away from home’ toilets is considered a core component of modern cities, particularly densely populated cities. PT should not be viewed only as a public service, but as a critical element for environmental safeguard and improve cities’ life quality. Research has shown that PT are essential design and planning concern to make cities more sustainable, accessible, inclusive and convenient for all members of society.

Despite its immense importance, the major cities of Bangladesh lacking the basic PT facilities for the city people including the floating population Currently, more than 61 million people living in urban areas of Bangladesh, of which a large number of people work and stay out of their homes for long hours. This section of people in the city, particularly those who are employed in the informal sectors critically require PT services. In general, there is a significant lack of attention of the government and the city authority to plan and provide PTs. The 5 Southern cities (Khulna, Jhenaidah, Kushtia, Jashore and Benapole) that SNV is implementing CWISE project are not out of this scenario. To meet the basic sanitation needs the people often use open areas, street side, walls, drains to respond to their natural needs. It is indeed a growing public nuisance which demands attention of all concerned. It is also an urgent issue which, if addressed in a planned manner will contribute to improve the “liveability” of any city.

Considering this, SNV conducted city specific assessment of the current status and future needs for PTs for the 5 cities. The study also determined this demand in cities considering the current and future needs in terms of population, location and availability of space. In addition to that, it also analysed the current state of the existing coverage of public toilets in the city. The reports shown that the current circumstances about governing all those facilities in the areas are not praiseworthy and most of the PTs are underutilised because of worst conditions and improper management. The existing PTs are financed by either NGOs, DPHE or government itself. None of the above mentioned institution provide any financial support for maintenance of these toilets or none international NGO is involved in financing or maintenance of the public toilets. In each of the sectors- e.g. finance, maintenance, monitoring, service providing etc. the authority has been found jumbled. However, to make the existing PTs liveable, the authorities must address the financial sustainability and besides increasing the number, care should also be given for the operation and maintenance as it has been found out that shut down of public toilet mainly occurred due to lack of maintenance. The responsibility for maintenance is still blurred due to the current practices followed by LGIs (City corporation/ LGIs) as public toilets reorganization as a non-profit service to the city corporations/ Paurashavas and a profitable business for the lease holder. To solve this uncertainty, development of viable business model for financial sustainability of public toilet and longevity of uninterrupted service is indeed an utmost importance now a days.

3.0 Objectives

The main objective of this assignment is to support LGIs (City corporations/ Paurashavas) for developing and implementing viable Management Model for operational and financial sustainability of Public Toilets (PTs).

The specific objectives of this assignment are:

Phase 1

  • to map and assess existing different PT management models in urban context of Bangladesh and in the region;
  • to propose different management models with advantages and disadvantages for operational and financial sustainability of PTs and recommend innovative financing solutions/mechanism for implementing the models;

Phase 2

  • Support each of the city authorities to analyse the proposed models considering their advantages and disadvantages into their context and support them selecting the best option(s);
  • Support each of the cities to customise the selected models and provide follow-up support to implement one of the selected models.

4.0 Scope of work

The Consultancy will entail the following scope of work:

Phase 1

  • Discussion with SNV Urban Sanitation Team and City Corporation/ paurashava officials to understand the assignment, the background and expectations from the study;
  • Coordinate with SNV Urban Sanitation programme, LGIs (city corporation/ paurashvas), Standing Committees, GoB/LGD and other stakeholders (NGO, private sector) to collect different data and documents including interviews / e-discussion/workshop at the national and local level;
  • Review existing documents about challenges/ gaps/ barriers for O&M of Public Toilets in Bangladesh and in specific in the 5 cities within this assignment;
  • Develop innovative schemes for management of public toilets including financial models (innovative financing solutions/ mechanism). This should take into account the recommendation to overcome the existing challenges, gaps and barriers for O&M of Public Toilets;
  • Disseminate/ validate the findings and proposed models at national level with city authorities, government stakeholders and others. The workshop will be held in Dhaka and the consultant must ensure participation of key relevant stakeholders to validate the findings. SNV will bear the cost of the workshop.

Phase 2

  • Support city authorities to analyse and decide, through an informed-choice process, the most suitable management model for their city and support its customization. This process should start analysing the pros and cons for each model and prioritize the most appropriate for the city, including in the discussions city officials, councillors and other local stakeholders. The selected model must be approved by city council, and SNV will support from the governance side to ensure this commitment;
  • Elaborate a specific City Action Plan for the implementation of the management model and provide follow up support and recommendations to city authorities for its implementation.

5.0 Deliverables

The Consultant is expected to deliver a comprehensive and high quality analytical report to above mentioned scope of work:

Phase 1

  • Inception report along with detailed work plan of the assignment;
  • Proposal of at least four management and business models for different market segments (bus terminals, markets, other public places etc.) with advantages and disadvantages, including financial models (innovative financing solutions/ mechanism) to be implemented by LGIs. The document should include the scope of the review and process followed (methodology, information and data sources; supporting and reference documentation, etc.);
  • Report of the national level consultation workshop to disseminate/ validate the findings and present management models for PT.

Phase 2

  • Specific City Report (5 cities) with the results of the participatory and informed choice process to select the most suitable management model for public toilets in each city. This document should include the list of prioritized models, the justification and discussion and its customization.
  • Specific City Action Plan (5 cities) for implementation of the prioritized management models for public toilets.
  • Final report incorporating feedbacks from national level workshop and lessons and inputs from city implementation process. The report should include the final version of the management models for public toilets including financial model and recommendation for innovative financing solutions/ mechanism along with the other supporting information in the annexes.

6.0 Human resource requirement

The Consulting Firm/ organisation should have experience in conducting similar assignments in country or abroad. The required expertise should cover range of related disciplines including business, finance, socio-economics etc. The Consultant must attach the CVs of the key personnel to the proposal.

7.0 Timeframe

The total duration of the assignment will be for 24 weeks after signing of the contract. Commencement of the services is expected to be started by first week of July 2019.

8.0 Implementation arrangements

The Consultant will report to the Team Leader (SNV Urban Sanitation Programme) for each of the deliverables, and will work closely with the Sanitation Business Advisor for day to day reporting and also with the Urban Sanitation Team.

SNV will make payments to the agency in BDT after deducting applicable TAX and VAT in compliance with the rules of Bangladesh. Payment will be made to the agreed account based on the receipt of invoice after the successful completion of each of the following phases of the assignment:

Milestone Payment schedule Estimated date
Upon submission of the inception report and approved by SNV 25% of the total budget Within second week of the signing the contract
Upon submission of draft proposal of management and business models for PT and approved by SNV. 25% of the total budget Within eight weeks of the signing of the contract
Upon submission of the 5 City Report about the informed choice process and the draft of the 5 City Action Plan to implement the selected management model, approved by SNV. 25% of the total budget Within eighteen weeks of the signing of the contract
Upon submission of the final report including all documents developed within the assignment period and approved by SNV. 25% of the total budget Within twenty four weeks of the signing of the contract

9. Application

Interested organisations or consulting firms are requested to submit their technical and financial proposals with the details on organisational overall and similar experience, methodology including activities and milestones, budget details, time frame and CVs of experts.

Electronic copy of the proposal duly signed should be submitted to bangladesh@snv.org  with the subject line: Development of Management Model for Public Toilets latest by 23 June 2019.

Or Hard copy can be submitted to:

SNV Netherlands Development Organisation
House 345, Road 2, Sonadanga R/A 2nd phase, Khulna

For any query related to the ToR, please contact Tanvir Chowdhury, Sanitation Business Advisor, SNV. Email: tchowdhury@snv.org